The jab of the needle is a pain, but it protects us from a multitude of microbes. Children in the United States endure as many as 14 vaccine injections by the time they’re 16. Adults are immunized to ward off influenza and tetanus; travelers arm themselves against cholera, typhoid and other diseases. Though injection is a time-honored means of delivering the goods, it has significant drawbacks. Injection equipment can quadruple the cost of a single vaccination. Fear of the needle reduces compliance with vaccination schedules in developed countries. In the developing world, reuse of syringes spreads disease, and lack of refrigeration limits the availability of vaccines. Indeed, the severity of these problems recently prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to declare war on unsafe injections and to urge the development of oral and nasal vaccines. Injected vaccines reign in part because researchers understand how they work. Introducing a vaccine underneath the skin or into the muscle provokes systemic immunity: Protective antibodies circulate in the blood. Delivering the vaccine orally triggers immunity at moist mucosal surfaces such as those that line the mouth, nose and genital tract, but the process has been far less well understood, says Robert Edelman, associate director… Read full this story
- Defining the Driver’s Car: Our Experience at IMPA’s Test Days
- 'The View' lifestyle expert Gretta Monahan opens up about being diagnosed with breast cancer
- 67 year old Abuja woman reveals Herbal treatment that reverses type 2 Diabetes, keeps blood sugar normal and also saved her from Amputations!
- Audi RS 7: The beast that dazzles
- 9 Things to Know About Dolly Parton
Making Needles Needless have 261 words, post on www.technologyreview.com at September 1, 1998. This is cached page on Konitono. If you want remove this page, please contact us.